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園林假山兩千年的曆史回顧!

  在園林建設中,假山製作從秦漢時期開始的,開始是以土堆山,雖然山的氣勢有了,但沒有石頭的險峻之趣,於是又發展到了用真石頭來建造假山。魏晉南北朝,山水詩和山水畫開始興盛起來,對園林建造產生了巨大影響。假山製作雖仿造的自然山石,與園林的結合卻頗有中國山水畫的意韻,造園者寄情山水的意趣得以聚於具體景象之中。園林中的假山製作曆史已有近兩千年了。
  In the construction of gardens, the fabrication of rockeries began in the Qin and Han Dynasties, and began with mounds of earth. Although the momentum of the mountains had changed, there was no precipitous interest in stones, so it developed to use real stones to build rockeries. In the Wei, Jin, Southern and Southern Dynasties, landscape poetry and landscape painting began to flourish, which had a great impact on garden construction. Despite imitating natural rocks and rocks, the combination of rockery and gardens has the charm of Chinese landscape paintings, and the interest of gardeners in expressing their feelings for mountains and waters can be gathered in specific scenes. The history of making rockeries in gardens has been nearly two thousand years.
  假山製作的發展要經過選料、築池、疊山、裝飾四個部分來進行。選料:大型山石的製作,無論是硬質石料與軟質石料、不論是吸水與不吸水,都要求做到石料統一,規格統一(塊狀或條狀)。築池:疊山理水,築池是理水的一種手段。水是山的血脈,有水則靈。水池的式樣有多種。常見的是圓形,通常直徑在5至10米,深度在80至120厘米;水深減除20厘米口沿,保持60厘米至100厘米;池底留有管道放水。疊山:假山不論是多體的(組合式),或單體的(孤峰式);它都是由主體(主峰)、客體(客峰)、襯體(矮山)三部分構成的。
  The development of rockery production should go through four parts: material selection, pond building, Hill folding and decoration. Material selection: The production of large-scale rocks, whether hard or soft, whether absorbent or non-absorbent, requires the unification of stone materials and specifications (block or strip). Pool building: stacking mountains and managing water, pool building is a means of managing water. Water is the blood of mountains, while water is the soul. There are many types of pools. It is usually round, usually 5 to 10 meters in diameter and 80 to 120 centimeters in depth; the water depth is subtracted from 20 centimeters along the mouth and maintained from 60 centimeters to 100 centimeters; there are pipes at the bottom of the pool to discharge water. Mountains overlapping: Artificial hills are either multi-body (combination type) or single-body (solitary peak type); they are composed of three parts: main peak, object peak and lining (low mountain).
  魏晉南北朝時期,山水詩和山水畫的興盛,對於造園的影響巨大,表現在假山製作中則是假山的置景手法上,一般采納國畫中的高遠法和深遠法進行設計。
  During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Southern Dynasties, the flourishing of landscape poetry and landscape painting had a great impact on gardening. It was shown in the way of setting the scenery of rockery in the production of rockery, which generally adopted the lofty and far-reaching methods in traditional Chinese painting.
  (1)主體應排在前麵左側或右側,若主體在左,客體即在右,形成開合式、一大一小、一高一矮、互相呼應。
  (1) The subject should be on the left or right side of the front. If the subject is on the left, the object is on the right, forming an open-close type, a big one, a small one, a tall one, a short one, and echoing with each other.
濟南假山製作
  主峰挺拔險峻、後麵山坡緩緩延伸,與後座襯體(遠山)形斷意連。主峰聳立麵前,形成開門見山欲先藏的手法,使人感到境界越大,對中部的山水景色產生“可見而又看不清”的誘惑力,使遊人必須再移步往前看個究竟。
  The main peak is tall and steep, and the back hillside extends slowly, which is connected with the backseat liner (remote mountain). In front of the main peak, it forms a way to hide first, which makes people feel that the greater the realm is, the more attractive the central landscape is to "see but not see clearly", which makes visitors have to move forward to see what is going on.
  (2)主體的高度比例和高遠法相同,其位置應排在中部左側或右側,客體擺在前麵右側或左側。主客體一個錯前,一個錯後,遙相呼應,襯體在後。單體景物的多層結構,構成近(客體)中(主體)遠(襯體)景的各體層次,從而加強了正麵的透視感,增加了景觀的深度。山體總麵積一般不超過水麵的一半或少於一半。這樣,留下足夠的空白,給欣賞者留下聯想與想象的空間,達到“此處無景勝有景”、“虛中見實”的效果。“山借樹為衣,樹以山為骨”,隻有合理配置植物,山水才能有骨有肉,有形有神。
  (2) The height ratio of the main body is the same as that of the high-distance method. Its position should be arranged on the left or right side of the middle, and the object should be placed on the right or left side of the front. The subject and object have a wrong front, a wrong back, echo each other remotely, and the lining is behind. The multi-layer structure of a single scene forms all levels of the near (object) medium (subject) and far (lining) scenery, thus enhancing the positive perspective and increasing the depth of the landscape. Generally, the total area of mountain body does not exceed half or less of the water surface. In this way, leave enough blank space for the viewer to associate and imagine, to achieve the effect of "scenic scenery here" and "visible reality in the empty". "Mountains are clothed with trees, and trees are built with mountains as bones." Only by reasonably allocating plants, can mountains and rivers have bones, flesh and spirit.
  假山製作選用姿態優美,葉小常綠,生長不旺,壽命很長,適應性強的植物。
  The rockery is made of plants with beautiful posture, small evergreen leaves, low growth, long life and strong adaptability.
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