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淺析園林假山造景的布局手法

在風景區、公園、房地產小區等地,特別是秋葵视频官网二维码下载常常在電影電視裏麵看到,秋葵视频官网下载會看見很多假山,可見假山在園林景觀中應用之廣泛。如今隨著新工藝技術的研發,水泥雕塑工藝技術的提高,現今秋葵视频官网二维码下载平時看到的假山大都是通過水泥人工塑造製作而成的。
In scenic spots, parks, real estate areas and other places, especially in the film and television, we can see a lot of rockery, which can be seen in the garden landscape widely used. Nowadays, with the development of new technology and the improvement of the technology of cement sculpture, most of the rockery we see at ordinary times are made by artificial cement.
濟南假山製作
如何才能做出如此精巧的假山呢?在園林造景中,假山製作也需要通過合理的布局,與周邊環境相融合,才能發揮其山水特色。下麵秋葵视频官网下载就一起來看看園林景觀造景中假山常用的布局手法。
How can we make such a smart rockery? In landscape design, rockery production also needs to be reasonable layout, and the surrounding environment integration, in order to play its landscape characteristics. Now let's take a look at the common layout techniques of rockery in landscaping.
人工塑石假山整體布局要講究主次分明,疏密有致,講究開合,虛實相生,藏露結合,以小見大。
Artificial rockery overall layout should pay attention to the primary and secondary clear, dense and delicate, pay attention to open and close, virtual and real, hide and dew combination, to see big.
一、主次分明
Primary and secondary
塑山所造山石的風格、質地須一致,色彩、紋理、脈絡應自然變化。塑石假山主峰的位置雖然不一定要布置在假山區的中部地帶,但卻一定要在假山山係結構核心的位置上。主峰位置也不宜在山係的正中,而應當偏於一側,以避免山係平麵布局呈現對稱狀態。主峰的高度及體量,一般應比第二山峰高,以充分突出主峰的主體地位,做到主次分明。
The style and texture of mountain stones should be consistent, and color, texture and veins should be changed naturally. The locations of the main peak of the rockery is not necessarily located in the middle of the rockery, but it must be located at the core of the rockery structure. The main peak position should not be in the middle of the mountain system, but should be on the side, so as to avoid the symmetry of the plane layout. The height and volume of the main peak should be higher than that of the second peaks, so as to give prominence to the main position of the main peak and make the primary and secondary distinctly clear.
另外,山的形狀、大小、高低必須有變化,山峰自然高低錯落,參差不齊;山腰線要流暢,左右要有變化,一邊坡度陡,一邊坡度緩,使山的造型形成一種動勢;山腳要有回抱、曲折,線條要流利自如,以突出假山中水的柔軟。
In addition, the shape, size and height of the mountain must be changed, the peak of the mountain is uneven and uneven; the mountain waist line should be fluency, the left and right changes, the steep slope, the gentle slope, the shape of the mountain to form a kind of momentum; the foot should have the back, twists and turns, the lines should be free to highlight the softness of the water in the rockery.
二、疏密有致
Two.
塑山的石紋石脈分布不可平均,應該自然分布。山石皴紋、群峰位置、植物點綴、小品配置等疏密有致。通常主峰一帶是密處,山石樹木布置得密,配峰相對稀疏。
The distribution of stone veins is not uniform and should be distributed naturally. The density of mountain stone chapped pattern, peak position, plant ornament and sketch arrangement are all caused. Usually the main peak area is the most densely located, and the trees are densely arranged, and the peaks are relatively sparse.
三、講究開合
Three. Pay attention to opening and closing
在園林假山的藝術造型中,開是起勢,合是收尾。立峰是開,坡腳是合,近山是開,遠山是合。一般假山布局都是由3至4個開合交替出現,體現出節奏韻律。
In the artistic modeling of garden rockery, opening is the starting point and ending is ending. The peak is open, the foot of the slope is close, the mountain is open, and the distant mountain is a combination. The general rockery layout is from 3 to 4 opening and closing alternately, reflecting rhythm and rhythm.
四、虛實相生
Four. False and real life
在假山藝術中,常用虛實對比的方法來突出假山的藝術境界。所謂藝術境界是指用園林假山所表現的假山真實景觀(稱為實境),來突出某種深遠的意境(稱為虛境)。疊山置石十分講究內收而後突兀的形態,以山洞取“虛”得其深遠,後突取“實”得其造險。假山藝術由模仿真實的自然山體而逐漸發展開來。“雖有人造,宛自天開”是假山藝術的高境界。因此,假山藝術是人工與自然的和諧相生,在“真中有假,以假亂真”中體現虛實相生的意境。
In the art of rockery, the method of comparison between virtual and real is used to highlight the artistic realm of rockery. The so-called artistic realm refers to the real landscape of the rockery represented by the garden rockery (called the real realm), to highlight a certain far-reaching artistic conception (called the virtual realm). Mountains and stones are very particular about the form of collection and then abrupt, with the cave to take the "virtual" to its far-reaching, then suddenly take the "real" to its risk. The art of rockery develops from the imitation of the real natural mountain. "Although artificial, open from heaven" is the highest level of rockery art. Therefore, rockery art is the harmony between man-made and nature. It reflects the artistic conception of "truth has falsehood, and falsehood and confusion with truth".
五、藏露結合
Five. Combination of Tibetan and dew
露中有藏、藏中有露,即園林假山要展現出一個景外有景、景中生情的動人畫麵,產生深遠意境。假山的藏露,關鍵的是峰巒要有立體布局,產生前後掩映,表現出“崇山峻嶺”之感。另外,空白處理在園林假山造景中也起到十分重要的作用。明、清文人畫家將山水畫留出大量空白隱藏了大山大水,畫麵呈現一種空曠渺漠的境界,可謂“此處無聲勝有聲”。園林假山造景的空白處理與其有異曲同工之妙。兩者在空間處理上都采用“藏露結合”的手法。空白在假山中所占空間的大小,對整個布局效果起著重要的作用。
Dew in hiding, hiding in dew, that is, the garden rockery to show a scene outside the scene, scenery in the moving picture of life, producing a far-reaching artistic conception. The most important thing of the hidden hills is the three-dimensional layout of the ridges, and the appearance of the mountains and hills. In addition, blank treatment also plays a very important role in garden rockery landscaping. The Ming and Qing Chinese painters have left a large number of blanks in the mountains and rivers to hide the great mountains and rivers. The pictures show a kind of empty and desert state, which can be described as "there is no sound here and there is sound." The blank treatment of garden rockery landscapes is different from that of other landscapes. Both of them use the combination of "Tibet and dew" in space processing. The space occupied by the blank in the rockery plays an important role in the layout effect.
六、以小見大
Six.
山置石,令人產生身臨其境之感,得益於師法自然。疊山置石在造園中,山、石是營造景觀不可缺少的載體。人們立足於山腳仰視高山,視線受到阻礙,隻能看到眼前山體的局部。這時,雖不見整體景觀卻依然感受到雄偉壯麗,浮想聯翩。假山布局正是利用這一特點,將假山置於一個較小的空間內,在塑造山體時不必塑造完全與真山相同的體積規模,隻需塑造部分或微縮山體仿出真山的氣質,使觀賞者隻能仰視而產生山外有山、意猶未盡的聯想。這種以局部景觀寓意整體景觀的表現技法,充分體現了假山布局“以小見大”的藝術特點。
The stone placed on the mountain creates a sense of being on the scene and benefits from the practice of learning from nature. In mountain gardening, mountains and stones are indispensable carriers for creating landscapes. People stand on the foothills and look up to the mountains, and their sight is obstructed. At this time, although the whole landscape was not seen, it still felt magnificent and imaginative. The layout of the rockery is to use this feature to place the rockery in a small space. It does not need to shape the same size as the true mountain in the shape of the mountain. This technique of expressing the whole landscape with the meaning of local landscape fully embodies the artistic characteristics of the layout of rockery.
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